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Refugee and Unaccompanied Youth


Who Are They? 


Collier, L. (2015). Helping immigrant children heal. Monitor on Psychology, 46(3), 58.


Ellis, Abdi, S. M., & Winer, J. P. (2020). Mental health practice with immigrant and refugee youth: A socioecological framework. In Mental health practice with immigrant and refugee youth: A socioecological framework. American Psychological Association.

Lorenzen, M. (2017). The mixed motives of unaccompanied child migrants from Central America’s northern triangle. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 5(4), 744–767.

National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (2014). Unaccompanied migrant children. resources//unaccompanied_migrant_children.pdf

Rodriguez, S., Roth, B., & Sosa, L. V. (2020). School social workers as nepantleras in equity work for immigrant students: A conceptual exploration. Social Service Review, 94(4), 748-780.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2014). Children on the run: Unaccompanied children leaving Central America and Mexico and the need for international protection. 


United States Conference of Catholic Bishops/Migration and Refugee Services. (2012). The changing face of the unaccompanied alien child: A portrait of foreign-born children in federal foster care and how to best meet their needs.

United States’ Customs & Border Protection (CBP). (2021). March 2021 operational update. Retrieved from


United States’ Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR). (2022). Facts and data. Retrieved from

Villarreal Sosa, L., Roth, B., Rodriguez, S. (2021). Crossing borders: Exploring the role of social workers in immigrant serving schools. Social Work Research. doi: 10.1093/swr/svab011


Villarreal Sosa, L. (2019). Advocating for Latinx Children’s Rights and Supporting their Healing from Trauma: School Social Workers as Nepantleras. Children and Schools, 41(1). 195-201.

Migratory Grief and Ambiguous Loss


Boss, P. (1999). Ambiguous loss: Learning to live with unresolved grief. Harvard University Press.

Casado, B. L., Hong, M., & Harrington, D. (2010). Measuring migratory grief and loss associated with the experience of immigration. Research on Social Work Practice, 20(6), 611–620.

Falicov, C. J. (2002). Ambiguous loss: Risk and resilience in Latino immigrant families. In M. Suárez-Orozco & M. Paez (Eds.), Latinos: Remaking America

(pp. 274–288). University of California Press.

Jerves, E., Rober, P., Enzlin, P., & De Haene, L. (2019). Ambiguous loss in transnational families’ adolescents: An exploratory study in Ecuador. Family Process, 33(3), 363–390.

Suárez Orozco, C., Todorova, I. L., & Louie, J. (2002). Making up for lost time: The experience of separation and reunification among immigrant families. Family Process, 41(4), 625–643.

Cultural Brokering 

Cedeño, S. M. (2021). Conexiones: Brokering Connections with Unaccompanied Immigrant Adolescents in Secondary Schools. School Social Work Journal, 45(2), 1-20. 

Lindsay, S., Tetrault, S., Desmaris, C., King, G., & Pierart, G. (2014). Social workers as “cultural brokers” in providing culturally sen- sitive care to immigrant families raising a child with a physical disability. Health & Social Work, 39(2), E10–E20.

Yohani, S. (2013). Educational cultural brokers and the school adaptation of refugee children and families: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 14(1), 61–79.

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